Summarizing my previous five posts: for those that are attempting to lead good moral lives there are three basic moral philosophies: consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics.
I believe that consequentialism, while possibly noble, is one that deemphasize individual choice and performance for the sake of the good of society. As such, it can be used to justify actions that are harmful to individuals for the sake of the social good. This philosophy robs the individual of his/her pursuit of happiness and the future flourishing of society. Ii is very difficult to accept the premise that the ends justify the means, and that the individual is subservient to the will of society.
I believe that deontology, the most widely accepted of the three philosophies, also while possibly noble, is one that emphasizes the individual and his/her actions, but without regard for the consequences of those actions. Just following what one believes to be the duty or obligation for certain actions, without considering the consequences of those actions, leaves the individual and society at risk.
I believe that virtue ethics is the only philosophy that is concerned with the individual making the right decisions for the right reasons. The virtues found in good people make sure that this happens. The virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, justice, and love of neighbor, are displayed throughout the fine arts as the models for achieving happiness and the flourishing of society. A person who possess all or some of the virtues will lead to good actions. In other words, a good action will only come from a good person, and a good person is one who has earned or is earning the virtues.
Not only do the great masters of the fine arts present the virtues a necessary for good actions, but the great myths, great philosophers, and modern positive psychologists also support the earning of the virtues through hard work and preparation as necessary for a moral life and one that leads to individual happiness.
The virtues are the catalysts for the individual to seek out and capture the boon that is the gift to society. The virtues (of which at least wisdom and courage are earned from a loving family, and involvement and exposure activities earlier in life before acceptance of the call to adventure) are the instruments by which the individual is awarded happiness and society flourishes.
Let me illustrate with three great artworks:
The Morning Bell by Winslow Homer (1871)
Above is Homer’s interpretation of the acceptance of the call to adventure (Gallery Four in my book). The girl has the wisdom to see her future course of action and the courage to follow the path, even though it is uncertain where the path will lead her.
The Veteran in a New Field by Winslow Homer (1865)
In this painting, another one by Homer, we have the adventurer who has fought the many trials and has captured the boon for his society (the end of the Civil War, as displayed in Gallery Five of my book). He is displaying the virtues of temperance and justice (concern for the common good) – wisdom and courage to accept the adventure were earned earlier before battle. But one thing is missing, happiness – the veteran has not yet been recognized for his efforts by his fellow countrymen.
The Night Watch by Rembrandt (1642)
In this masterpiece by Rembrandt, we see the protectors of the community being lauded by the military followers as well as the citizens (depicted by the little girl). They have fought the many battles to capture the boon (safety and security of the community) and have been able to return back to the everyday world as a result of the love and admiration of their friends and neighbors (as seen in Gallery Six of my book).
This great Rembrandt painting illustrates that it is the responsibility of individuals and not the state to determine the future of the community (consequentialism is not supported in this painting). Also, the painting illustrates that the mere duty or obligation of the few military men to protect the community is not sufficient as well. The lighting and the placement of the small girl, representing the common community that it relying on the military men, is prominent in the painting, and for a special reason. She represents the admiration and love for the heroes that have returned from the adventure: it is she, the personification of love of neighbor, who is welcoming the men across the threshold back to the everyday world (a personification missing in the Homer painting above). It is this love of neighbor that brings happiness to the men (who have earned the virtues to succeed in the adventure) and the gift of their boon of protection to their society. A mere sense of duty (deontology) would not have been sufficient. It is the application of the virtues that makes this painting a masterpiece.